In July of this year, a rabid dog bite in Kazakhstan led to the death of the father of the family. He drove the dog away from his 2-year-old son, having suffered himself. Those who had been bitten on the shepherd’s camp site in the Uille district asked for medical help. She saved the child. My father did not follow the recommendations of the doctors, began to notice signs of rabies. The disease led to death.
Such a severe impact of the infection on a person makes one look at dogs not only as friends, but also enemies. We will learn to separate them from the total mass of four-legged, understand how to recognize the disease and protect against it and its carrier.
Incubation period of rabies in dogs
Otherwise called latent, that is, hidden. The disease is gaining strength inside the body, not manifesting itself externally. Like most infections, the incubation of rabies has blurred boundaries from the 21st to the 42nd days. After the symptoms of the disease appear. You can become infected 3-5 days before the end of the latent stage.
The pathogen is already active in the blood, urine, feces and saliva of the animal. Therefore, it is important to memorize the symptoms of rabies, capturing the first, still insignificant manifestations of the disease. Bite — the main method of infection. However, if there are open wounds on the body, the illness can penetrate through them along with physiological fluids that are damaged. The latent period for alternative infection coincides with the standard. However, there are exceptions everywhere.
There are cases when the disease manifested itself in 2-3 months. This applies to adult dogs. Puppies set reverse records. In some, the disease manifests itself already on the 5th day. The rapid spread of infection in young animals lies in the instability of immunity and the small size of the victims.
The rabies virus belongs to the encephalitis group, being transported over neurons at a speed of 3 millimeters per hour. The length of neural circuits in puppies is less than in adult dogs. For the same reason, the latent period of the disease in large quadrupeds is longer than that of dwarf species.
Symptoms and signs of rabies in dogs
The first signs of rabies in dogs are far from the well-known picture of the disease in its active phase. The animal begins to give the impression of guilty, tends its head to the ground and looks with sadness. As if fleeing from guilt, the dog withdraws, ceases to frolic. Starts a long maturation. At the same time, a pet or a courtyard begins to drink a lot. So thirst is the first sign of rabies in dogs .
Lacking water, an infected individual does not experience a similar desire for food. Lack of appetite, especially in a voracious dog, is an alarming sign. In some forms of rabies, eating habits remain the same, but swallowing is difficult.
The dog begins to choke often, and not only bones and large pieces of food. There is a third change in the diet of the animal. Some individuals begin to eat stones, wood and other items that are not suitable for ingestion. The first symptoms of rabies in dogs are also:
- Hoarse and hoarse voice
- Fussiness and irritability
- Loss of hair outside molting
After that, the clinical picture of the late period of rabies appears. The illness is viral. The pathogen affects the brain of the animal. Associated with this are the increasing inadequacy of behavior and the loss of body control. So, we recognize the active stage of the disease by:
- Panic Fear of Water
- The outflow of foam and saliva from a constantly open mouth with an evil grin
- Attempts to nibble own tail, paws
- Attacks on beasts and people for no reason
Before death ceases to show aggression, and can not more. The body is paralyzing. First hind legs are immobilized. Paralysis is slowly «crawling» to the head. However, a rabid beast dies, usually with still moving front legs, neck and head.
Violent form of the disease
In fact, it is an active stage in the course of the virus. This period has sub-steps. There are three of them. On the first dog avoids communication, ceases to respond to the nickname. If you still go to the dog, he whines and fawns. In aggression, weasel moves into the second stage of violent rabies. The signs and symptoms of a dog during this period are reduced to unfounded:
- Attacks not only on living beings, but also inanimate objects
In the third stage of violent rabies, the larynx is blocked. The result — wheezing and sagging of the lower jaw. Saliva begins to flow freely from the mouth, standing out in an increased amount. Foam is formed near the mouth. The brutal creation constantly howls.
The last stage of a violent disease is called paralytic or depressive veterinarians. It is preceded by a manic stage, and the first stage is called prodromal or melancholic. The total duration of violent rabies — 5-13 days.
Silent form of the disease
It is confused with Aujeszky’s disease. It is also called pseudo-madness. Also affects the respiratory tract. When Aujeszky begins scabies, leading to irritability. The brain of an animal suffers no less than with rabies. For a dog there is no particular difference. Both viruses are deadly. Man is weakly receptive to Aujeszky. Rabies affects people with the same intensity as animals.
The silent form of the disease lasts 2-4 days. The dog remains docile, normally eats. The virus begins to manifest itself in diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. This causes confusion with enteritis and other infections of the gastrointestinal tract. Infected lose weight and weaken.
Sometimes, in a quiet stage of rabies, paralysis of the larynx begins. Outwardly, the dog seems to have choked on bone. In favor of this version speak coughing, sip. Owners of domestic dogs often climb into their mouths. Not finding a bone there, people become infected through the saliva of an animal.
Some sources stand out in a separate subspecies of rabies. Officially, an atypical disease is synonymous with the silent form of the disease. Atypical, it is named because of the blurred picture of the symptoms. If even amateurs recognize violent rabies, then veterinarians confuse the quiet with other diseases.
In addition to Ausenki and gastrointestinal disorders, a nervous type of plague is attributed to rabid dogs. It also leads to paralysis and epileptic seizures. The animal becomes irritable and aggressive. On the «clean water» output:
- Lack of blockage of the lower jaw
- The development of serous conjunctivitis
- In rabies, paralysis of the jaw is obligatory, it may not appear at the early stage of the disease, but over time it
- will help in establishing an accurate diagnosis.
Recurrent form of the disease
Differs undulating, cyclical development. The transition from the quiet to the violent stage is repeated many times. Each time, apathy increases, and aggression increases.
The returnable form is otherwise called remitting. Initially, the concept was used to fluctuate body temperature during the day during a fever. Typically, the reduction of heat to 37.3-37.5 degrees with a repeated increase and again replacing it with the decline.
At times, recurrent rabies cycles create the impression of an acute illness followed by a quick recovery. The impression is false. The dog is doomed. Out of hundreds of individuals, one survives, as a rule. Moreover, the type of disease in this one individual is defined as abortive. In the next chapter, find out what this means.
Prior to the acute stage proceeds typically. Then comes a quick recovery. His mechanism is a mystery for physicians. The concept of «abortive» means «interrupted.» The disease is interrupted in 1-2% of those infected. Perhaps the percentage would be large, do not lull the veterinarians of rabid dogs. They are caught and brought in for injections in order to protect themselves and other animals from infection.
Abortive form of rabies is also observed in humans. One of the testimonies is contacting a homeless woman in a Texas hospital. An analysis of her blood confirmed infection with lissavirus. This is the scientific name of the causative agent of rabies.
However, it was possible to diagnose the disease by external signs. The illness has entered an acute stage. Meanwhile, the hospitalized survived, quickly leaving the hospital due to the inability to pay for medical services.
The existence of an abortive type of rabies gives hope, but should not be a stimulus to inaction. The virus belongs to the group «rebies», that is, particularly dangerous. It is important to quickly and correctly identify the disease. How to do this, we tell in the next chapter.
How to determine rabies
Reliably «calculate» the virus, taking a blood test from an animal. While it is being processed, the animal is put into quarantine, and simply speaking, in a single cage or a closed enclosure. Without a blood test, a dog is seen locked up for about 2 weeks.
The period is sufficient to verify the diagnosis or to refute it, without resorting to the study of physiological fluids. Additional evidence of rabies during an external examination of the animal may be a trace of the bite. He is the reason to vaccinate the animal, if the clinical picture of the disease has not yet manifested.
Is rabies treated
The disease is incurable. Looking for medicine for half a millennium. The first mentions of lissavirus infection were found in 16th century records. So far, only a vaccine has been developed. Its creator is Louis Pasteur. This is a French microbiologist. He invented the rabies vaccine in the 1885th year.
The cure for lissavirus was “risen” only in the 21st century. Medicament is far from classic. Rabies try to treat with a coma. Patients are artificially injected into it. The first experience relates to the year 2005. Then the American Jean Gis was admitted to the hospital with the first signs of infection. To whom the girl was introduced on the basis that the pathogen temporarily blocks the nervous system, without leading to its irreversible changes.
By disabling most of the patient’s brain, doctors gave the body the opportunity to produce the right amount of antibodies. In parallel, physicians gave Gene immunostimulatory drugs. After a week in a coma, the girl went on the mend.
A breakthrough with coma is conditional. Method tried again. Success was achieved only in the first of 24 cases. This suggests that the recovered mysterious abortive rabies, independent of the work of doctors.
Due to the «nebula» and the high cost, the coma treatment method and immunostimulants have not been tested on animals. Since the question is about money, the loving owner can pay by organizing an attempt to heal the pet. So far, no one was willing.
The reason probably lies in the vaccination against rabies, planned to put domestic dogs. In addition, they have less chance of being bitten than wild ones. By the way, it is in the wild that most carriers of the virus of the type inhabit:
In the Russian open spaces, the main carriers of the disease are foxes and wolves . Wild cats join them. However, domestic rabies also exposed.
Prevention and treatment of rabies in dogs
Disease prevention — vaccine. Breeding specimens inoculated in it without fail. Sheet vaccinations, for example, require the sale of rail and air tickets for four-legged.
Vaccinated dogs , being bitten by an infected animal, become ill only in 2% of cases. Usually, these are individuals with weakened immunity, already suffering from other infections, or exhausted after surgery.
Like encephalitis, the rabies vaccine is administered in several steps:
- The first spend 2-month puppies
- The second dose of vaccine is administered after 3 weeks.
- The third dose of the drug is placed after the change in young teeth
After the main program, vaccination continues to be updated once a year. The drug is administered at the same time, for example, in the spring.
If the animal is bitten but not vaccinated, the vaccine is injected urgently. At the same time there are conditions. A couple of months after receiving the drug, the animal should not overwork, supercool and overheat. Nervous shocks are also contraindicated. Risk factors weaken the immune system, lead to physical and nervous fatigue — ideal conditions for the development of the disease.
What to do if your dog is bitten?
It is important to exclude self-treatment. Pet urgently delivered to the veterinary clinic. You need to hurry even with a grafted four-legged. The doctor will prescribe immunostimulants that support the action of the vaccine. Do not forget that 2% of vaccinated dogs are infected. The vaccine, by the way, is free in state veterinary clinics and in private grosheva. The vaccination pocket will not empty, and the animal will be protected.
Whether a bitten dog is grafted or not, it is immediately isolated, eliminating contact with other pets, cattle and people. If a four-legged friend is infected, it is unlikely to be saved. The priority is to prevent the further spread of the disease.
What to do if a dog with rabies bit a person?
Recommended urgent treatment in an infectious diseases hospital. The vaccine will be administered to the bitten one and, possibly, will be given immunostimulants along with antibiotics. The latter are known to kill all microorganisms, including viruses. A sacrifice of useful microflora is justified when life and death are on the scales.
By waiting to see a doctor, one can notice the first symptoms of the infection. The first signs of rabies in a person after a dog bite :
- Pain and burning in the bite site
- After healing, the wounds swell and redden again.
- The temperature rises to 37.5, occasionally rising to 38 degrees
- There is shortness of breath, feeling of lack of air
- Difficult swallowing
- Weakness «spreads» through the body
Noticing the listed symptoms remains to hope for a miracle. In the case of timely medical care, the chance of survival reaches 90%. Dying, as a rule, do not comply with the recommendations of doctors.
A man from Kazakhstan who defended his son from a rabid dog, for example, continued to work at a construction site, lifting weights and exposing himself to the scorching sun. This, according to doctors, weakened the body’s resistance to the virus and the effect of the vaccine on it.