Winterers are called birds that remain in their native land all year round. Animals are guided not so much by the temperature of the air, as by the personal abilities and specificity of the food base of the region.
Warmth in the cold only fed up feathery. Hence, the wintering bird should be able to get food among the snows. Accordingly, insectivorous species fly away in the winter to the south. Remain satisfied with berries, seeds and predators, hunting for mice, rabbits. There are about 70 wintering birds in Russia.
Their body temperature, like that of other birds, is 41 degrees. This is another proof that if you have food feathery frosts at all. Pigeons are not just wintering birds, but «tied» to a specific place. Departing from the «native nest» for thousands of kilometers, the blue always come back. People took advantage of this, starting to send letters with pigeons.
Having taken them to the addressee, the birds returned. Scientists argue as the birds find their way home. Some refer to magnetic fields. Others believe that pigeons are guided by the stars. Doves are faithful not only to their native lands, but also to their partners. A couple of birds choose once and for life, like swans.
The group of wintering birds consists of several species. In Russia there are two: urban and field. The latter is typical for rural areas. The total number of sparrows on the planet is close to a billion. Accordingly, one bird per 8 people.
Given that the feathered eat grains, this is a threat to harvest. In China, even carried out an action to destroy sparrows. Having found out that they can not fly longer than 15 minutes, people frightened the birds, not letting them sink to the ground. About 2 million individuals died dead.
However, in the absence of sparrows, locusts have spawned — another snack of birds. She ate a harvest instead of birds. Like pigeons, sparrows tend to choose one partner for life. In this case the birds have hot blood. Instead of 41 degrees, the sparrow’s body heats up to 44-e.
This is typical for small birds. They lose energy faster. It is interesting that in the neck of the sparrow there are 2 times more vertebrae than the giraffe. It’s about the length of the fragments. They are flat in sparrows.
This bird is a family of finches with a curved beak. Its structure is due to function. By the beak, the claw picks up the seeds from the cones. In this case, a characteristic click is heard. Hence the name of wintering birds. Despite the adaptability of the beak, the croziers can not remove all the pine nuts. Birds thrown by birds cleanse proteins.
Males are red-brown, and females are gray-green-yellow. Such birds become to 3 years of age. As adults, the crosses do not exceed 20 centimeters in length, they weigh about 50 grams.
Listen to the voice of the scammer
Cleaves are not just wintering birds in Russia, but singing in the snow. «Trills» are heard even at 50 degrees of frost. At -30, the clerks quietly incubate the eggs and rear offspring.
A sort of parrot in Russian. Crows perfectly adapt to captivity. Birds live there for about 40 years. In nature, the average age of a crow is 20 years. Among the people, the feathers grasp speech skills, speaking no worse than the macaw parrots.
Intellect of crows, by the way, is comparable with the development of 5-year-old children. Birds solve the same logical problems. One of the indicators of the mind is the way to protect the nests. Crows rush at the enemies with stones, lifting them in clinging paws.
In food, birds are unpretentious, they absorb grain, vegetables, and bread. Feathers often ruin the nests of other birds. But, the crab’s favorite treat is carrion. Her winter a lot, because the cold can not withstand all animals. Here are the birds and stay the winter.
What crows are gloomy. So many say. The impression that birds produce is associated not so much with black coloring as with frequent occurrence in cemeteries. There, crows search for carrion.
In modern cemeteries, it is rare to eat and, of course, not human bodies. But in the old days, when plague epidemics raged, criminals and poor people did not always consider it necessary to bury, crows literally flooded burial grounds.
Refers to the family of finches. The bird is little more than a sparrow, but the body of the bullfinch is denser. Males stand out with scarlet breasts. In females they are pink-ashy. Like crows, bullfincies are not against bondage. They do not begin to talk, but they are able to learn and whistle a few melodies.
The dense body of bullfinches in captivity often becomes complete. Feathers are insatiable, and the hosts indulge in gluttony of birds. In nature, by the way, they live in forests or in «islets» of trees in the steppes. In the open area, bullfinches are uncomfortable.
Listening to the singing of the bullfinc
Bullfinches are not always included in the list of wintering birds. About feathered it is difficult to say the same thing about the cogs. 50 degrees of frost for the bullfinch are critical. Therefore, populations from the northern borders of the taiga forests spend several months in the south. Snegiri in the middle zone of Russia live in it all the year round.
A 20-gram bird eats 500-600 caterpillars and insect larvae per day. This is the diet of tits in the summer, which they spend in the forests and in the fields, protecting them from pests.
In winter, the birds go to cities, eating the remains of human food, dropped seeds, slices of bread and grains from feeders, in garbage dumps. The main thing is not to eat black bread. It adversely affects the health of tits. Their stomach can not digest the rye starch, and the acids from the black bread lead to fermentation in the digestive system. This is fraught with tits turning a gut.
The tits are divided into 65 species. In Russia, a large one is distributed. Its representatives reach a length of 17 centimeters. Small birds are revered in Russia. In the 17th century, it was even forbidden to kill tits with a royal decree. Violators were fined.
In modern Russia, Sinichkin Day is established. It is celebrated on November 12th. It is customary to do and hang on the feeder trees. Children in schools draw pictures with tits. The authorities organize folk festivals.
These are beige-peach birds with a tuft on their head, black eyeliner, goiter, wings and tail. Long feathers reach 20 centimeters, weigh about 60 grams. On the tips of the wings are visible red spots, and on the tail — a yellow line. Thanks to the smart plumage, the waxwings were known as crested dandies.
In Russia, birds winter. What kind of lands do the birds choose? They prefer mixed forests of pines and birches. Flocks fly from place to place in search of food. Such birds are called nomadic.
Waxwingers are easily removed from their places of violence in one region, rushing to another. Birds are searching among the snows for mountain-dwellers, barberries or viburnum. In the canopy of the forest, the frozen cranberries are looked for.
In summer, the diet of the waxwings is replenished with gnats, herbs. They are fully digested by the birds. The berries are a heavy food for the stomach of the waxwing. The fruits are only partially digested. This facilitates the germination of seeds in the spring.
Refers to the passerine. In length the bird reaches 34 centimeters, weighs about 180 grams. The bird feeds on seeds of spruce, sunflowers, cereals. In warm regions, the favorite treat of a jay is acorns. Their feathers not only eat on the spot, but also bury them in the ground.
Jay is famous for its ability to imitate the voices of other animals, different sounds. The bird easily reproduces the creaking of the door, the barking of dogs, the nightingale trill.
Listen to the voice of the jay
To hear a jay is easier than to see. Feathered carefully. If you are luckier, you see a smart bird with white and blue flashes on its wings, a small crest on its head. In addition to plant food, the jay perceives the game, can eat the eggs of other birds or already hatched chicks.
It wears not only the title of rattle and thief, but also the most intelligent bird. Only magpies recognize themselves in the mirror, not counting other feathers. The birds are recognized by the person, figure, like a domestic dog.
The magpies too are not averse to being tamed. In captivity, birds study and adapt to clean their cells. For this, magpies use the children’s paddles given to them by the owners, pieces of cardboard, rags. Intellectual abilities of forty are explained by the size of the area responsible for cognition, in their brain. The site is as large as a human.
While the mind was forty there were no scientific explanations, they chose mystical ones. In the 19 th century, for example, Metropolitan Alexei forbade the white-beans to approach Moscow. The priest believed that witches flew into the capital under the guise of birds.
Feed magpies than they have, they can both predator and vegetation absorb. Omnivorousness and mind are a duet, allowing magpies to survive even in severe winters.
It is a bird of the family of finches. A distinctive feature is a red spot on the head. Near the white cheeks and the black top scarlet looks contrastingly, elegantly. Hence the name of the bird.
At the length of the schehels reach 17 centimeters, weigh about 20 grams. Despite the small size, goldfinches are known as fights. This is due to a heightened sense of ownership. Goldfinches are fighting for territories that they consider their own.
They feed on goldfish with seeds of weeds, for example, thistles. Food birds are collected, flying from field to field, are searched under the snow and on dry plants sticking out above it.
She chose the polar regions of Russia. To survive there helps loose, but plentiful plumage. The air in it keeps the warmth of the body of the owl, not letting the cold from outside.
The Polar bird extracts the prey by means of a noiseless and lightning flight, sharp sight. In the light of the ordinary candle, the owl sees the victim for 300 meters from it. In the claws and beak of the predator, there are hares, martens, rodents, lemmings. In the poor, the polar owls migrate to the forest-steppe belt for the year.
The bird is large, up to 70 cm long. Featherweight gaining 3-kilogram weight. Harry Potter held about that much. The hero of the work of Joan Rowling often used the services of the Bookley. This was the name of the white owl that served as the messenger for the magician.
The bird eats pine nuts. For them, a bird has a hypoglossal sack. In it nutcrackers carry about 100 nuts. The Russian taiga is rich in cedars, which means that the bird does not need to fly away in winter. Some cones remain in the trees in winter.
Those nutrients not nutritional in the hyoid bag are hidden in a radius of 2-4 kilometers from the tree on which they matured. In winter, stocks are buried in drifts, and in summer in the ground.
In Russia there is a monument to cedarwood. He is in Tomsk. Siberian city is surrounded by cedarchaks. Residents of the region know and love their dweller, admiring her year-round.
It is listed in the Red Book. Featherweight easily tolerates Russian winters, but can not adapt to the reduction because of the destruction of the taiga of its fiefdom. However, owls are able to live in captivity. In zoos and private owners, birds survived to 68 years old. In nature, however, the owl’s age is limited to 20 years.
Like the white owl, the eagle owls hunting for rodents, rabbits, martens. Birds catch them around the clock. The main activity is at night. Day of the owl more often sleep.
A small prey of the owl is swallowed whole. Large feathered victims are first torn into pieces that can squeeze into the pharynx. Cases of the attack of the eagle owls on young roe deer and wild boar have been recorded. This indicates the impressive size of the birds.
The bird has a bluish back and a white abdomen. Boka in feathery red with black stripes. On the paws — bent sharp claws. They pierce the earthquakes in the trunks of trees, quickly and dexterously moving along them.
The bird is looking for hidden insects, their larvae. Get them in the winter nuthatch allows you to have an acute, long beak. The bird studies every crack in the bark.
Piles prefer to live in oak forests. Wherever oaks do not grow, feathery choose parks with deciduous plantings. Pulses are searched for trees with hollows, settling in them. If the entrance to the house is wide, it is coated with clay. This work is carried out in the warm season.
Less than him, only a hummingbird. On the head of a bird is a yellow crest resembling a crown. This association prompted to call the feathered king. The king does not pull, because the size of a dragonfly. The weight of a bird at the same time is about 7 grams.
Korolki live in coniferous forests. Unlike hummingbirds, Russian dwarfs suffer a severe climate among birds. Even in winter, the kololki manage to find insects and their larvae. On the day the feather eat as much food as it weighs itself.
It is considered to be migratory. However, some of the czieri remain for wintering in Russia. To survive here in the winter the birds are ready next to the ice-free waters. Nests feathered arrange in the roots of trees near them.
Small birds so skilfully disguise homes that they became heroes of the legend of the stone of the invisible. Our ancestors believed that such a crystal of chizhi is placed under the nest, hiding it from the eyes of others.
To winterers include black grouse, grouse, partridge. They bask in the drifts. Under the snow, the birds are looking for food — last year’s grains and grass. In severe frosts birds try to avoid flights. The area of the body that increases with open wings leads to greater heat loss. Feathers risk becoming frozen, instead of catching prey or getting to places with better weather.
Wintering birds of Russia
Let us consider in more detail the species of birds that remain to winter in Russia.
Since not all species of wintering birds of Russia are listed in the picture above, for the sake of completeness of the picture we will name them: Sparrow, Crows, Pigeon, Woodpecker, Kedrovka, Klest, Corpulatus yolk, Kuropatka, Moskovka, Owl, Nuthatch, Ryabchik, Sviristel, Sinitsa, Snegir, Owl white, Jay, Soroka, Teterev, Owl, Chechetka, Lentil, Chizh, Goldfinch, Schur.